Conceptual Model of Peace Operations (CMPO)
The Conceptual Model of Peace Operations (CMPO) has been under development since our inception and has benefited significantly from input by subject matter experts participating in POPP workshops over time. The current version, CMPO 5.0, was released on February 1, 2002.
POPP defines a peace operation as an intervention into a complex contingency for the purpose of maintaining or restoring peace. The contingency may be due to conflict and/or natural disaster. Within the domain of peace operations, there are four higher order functions—peacemaking, peacebuilding, peacekeeping, and peace support. It should be noted that earlier versions of the model contained wording that colored these functions with associations to individuals or entities. Experts and analysts in the field tend to view peace operations through military, political/governmental, and civil/humanitarian lenses. In fact, for most of its life, CMPO contained three higher order functions—peacemaking, peacebuilding, and peace support. In late 2001, though, the POPP team critically re-examined CMPO and in making these nuances explicit arrived at the current four. CMPO 5.0 is considered in the shape of a tetrahedron, with peace support forming the base and holding up the other three functions. Each function is assigned a number, with the number of decimals to the right indicating how deep into the model it may be found.
The CMPO has three distinct components—functions, tasks and organizations. Below is a narrative description of the functions in the CMPO as well as a table of the top three levels. Attached to the functions are various tasks. Tasks are described as functions that can be assigned to an organization at a time and place, and may be measurable. Therefore tasks are more operational, whereas the functions are descriptive. The final component – organizations – is listed by type, both military and civilian. In most cases the tasks are related to organizations that have the capability to perform the task.
CMPO may be viewed online, where it is presented in a “tree structure.” The first four levels of functions are displayed, accounting for 116 of the 282 functions contained in the model. Note that clicking-on a folder icon next to a CMPO function expands the tree to include the next lower level of CMPO functions. Clicking-on the CMPO function itself opens a page (in a new browser window) containing the function’s definition and a “send comment” (via e-mail) link. To return to the tree structure, simply close the browser window containing the definition and “send comment” link.
Conceptual Model of Counterterrorist Operations
The Conceptual Model of Counterterrorist Operations (CMCTO) was developed during spring 2003 by the Peace Operations Policy Program with input from subject matter experts participating in its CMCTO workshops. Funding for development of CMCTO was provided by the National Defense University.
The present version of CMCTO (version 1.0) was released 24 October 2003; its development and content are documented in a paper entitled “The Conceptual Model of Counterterrorist Operations,” written by members of the POPP faculty and staff. Members of the counterterrorism and peace operations communities are invited to review and comment on CMCTO 1.0.
CMCTO 1.0 may be viewed online (new window: http://popp.gmu.edu/research/res3/cmctotreeview.htm), where it is presented in a “tree structure.” Note that clicking-on a folder icon next to a CMCTO function expands the tree to include the next lower level of CMCTO functions. Clicking-on the CMCTO function itself opens a page (in a new browser window) containing the function’s definition, citation of the source of that definition, and a “send comment” (via email) link. To return to the tree structure, simply close the browser window containing the definition, citation, and “send comment” link.
Click here to see CMCTO as a pdf (new window: cmcto pdf)
The Strategic Management System (STRATMAS) is a computer software tool used for the simulation of military and civilian operations. The program simulates the complex relationships between military and civilian sectors in situations such as Humanitarian Assistance/Disaster Relief Operations, Peacekeeping Operations, Peace Enforcement Operations, and Non-Combatant Evacuation Operations. Data parameters can be altered allowing the software to mimic many different situations in various locales; users can even replicate any existing country by setting the data parameters to match current conditions. STRATMAS allows participants to view the consequences of their actions in a synthetic environment, better preparing them to make decisions in the field.
The Swedish National Defence College and the US Joint Staff jointly supported the initial development of STRATMAS. The program uses gaming theory and algorithms for computing the data entered by participants. Today, ___ operates STRATMAS in a partnership with USIP.
For more information, visit ____.
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